What is Immune thrombocytopenia Purpura or ITP?

Immune thrombocytopenia Purpora or ITP is a blood disorder with a low blood platelet count. Platelets are a small colorless cell that helps the blood to clot. Your platelets are made, in the bone marrow. When your platelet level is low, you bruise easily, your gums bleed, and there are risks of internal bleeding. ITP is an autoimmune disorder where your immune system attacks your platelets. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is also called thrombocytopenic purpura.

There are two forms of ITP are:-

  • Acute thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP) affects young children between 2 to 6 years. The system can occur after a viral infection such as chickenpox. Acute ITP can begin suddenly. Symptoms usually disappear within weeks or after 6 months. ATP does not need any treatment. The disorder does not return. Acute ITP is common. 
  • Chronic thrombocytopenic purpura (CTP) can occur at any age. Symptoms can last up to 6 months and can become a chronic disorder. Adults are at a higher risk of getting CTP, though adolescent children can also get affected. Chronic ITP requires constant treatment. A hematologist usually treats ITP.

Symptoms

Symptoms of immune thrombocytopenia purpura are:-

  • Excessive bruising.
  • Blood in vomit, stool, or urine.
  • Heavy menstrual period
  • Nosebleed
  • Superficial bleeding into the skin that looks at rash (pinpoint-sized reddish-purple spots). These spots are called purpura. 
  • A serious life-threatening symptom of ITP is bleeding in the head. 

Book an appointment with a hematologist in Pune if you show any of the signs of ITP.  

Causes

Researchers believe ITP is an autoimmune disorder when the immune system attacks platelets.

Some causes of ITP are:-

  • An allergic reaction to some medication.
  • Infections usually viral infection such as chickenpox, hepatitis C and Aids and bacterial infections such as H.pyori produce antibodies.  These antibodies attack the bacterial infection, virus and platelets. 
  • Low-grade leukemia and lymphoma
  • Pregnancy in rare cases.
  • Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus increase the risk.

Diagnosis

The best hematologists in Pune will diagnosis ITP based on your medical history, physical examination, and tests. During the physical examination, the doctor will look for signs of bruising or purpura. The doctor will order blood tests at home to determine the level of platelets.

They may order tests to check the level of antibodies, stool tests, and urine tests. They will review your medication. The hematologist near me may test your bone marrow to rule out any other problem. 

Treatment

The best hematologist in Pune will devise a treatment based on your age, the severity of the condition, and overall health. Acute ITC does not need treatment. There are several approaches the doctor can take. They may ask you to stop certain medications that aggravate the condition. Some medications prescribed by your doctor are steroids, immune globin, drugs that reduce prevents the immune system from attacking the platelets and drugs that improve your platelet count. 

 The hematologist near me may suggest surgery to remove your spleen in case the medication does not work. Platelets are destroyed in the spleen. You become more susceptible to infection. 

Emergency treatment for ITP may require platelet transfusion. Another emergency measure may involve steroids and immune globulin medication through IV. 

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